Planning a Quantitative Study
Quantitative studies are a method of inquiry that explains phenomena by collecting the numerical data that is analyzed mathematically based on statistical methods. It is a systematic empirical investigation of observable phenomena through statistical, mathematical, or the computational techniques. The method of study entails the use of questionnaires and survey techniques to gather data and then manipulate it with the preexisting statistical, computational techniques (Christensen, Johnson & Turner, 2011). The essay provides a description of the quantitative study to address the issue selected by the consultant group. The important aspects addressed in the discussion are the research question, sample and the factors that affect the internal validity of the study.
The selected issue by the consultant group is the need to advocate for the construction of a clinic for the screening of minorities for various health illnesses. The quantitative research issue of interest is the examination of the prevalence of minorities to the chronic health conditions due to the lack of easy access to a health care facility. The problem identified that forms the basis of the research is the limited access to health care services like screening that results to the high prevalence of the chronic health conditions. A high population living in the selected region is minorities who suffer from inequality in the access to health care services. Thus, they live with the diseases without their knowledge due to lack of early screening only to identify it at later stages which are difficult to manage.
The appropriate research question to guide the study is: “what is the prevalence (regarding some cases) of the chronic health conditions to the minorities in the selected region due to the limited access to health care services?” The research study seeks to identify the number of cases of the affected persons with chronic diseases due to the limited access to screening services. The research findings will be essential for the health care practitioner to use in the advocacy efforts for the need to construct a health clinic to serve the minorities.
Sample selection for the study is an important consideration to ensure that the study has external validity. In quantitative research, the concept of external validity is crucial because it seeks to make the conclusions generalized. It is necessary to make generalizations to a wider population and across the populations over time (Christensen, Johnson & Turner, 2011). Sample selection process will involve the use of a criterion that filters the most suitable participants as a representative of the wider population. The participants ought to be minorities, have lived in the select region for a minimum of five years, have not had access to screening services for the chronic diseases, and are willing to share information about their health status.
The conditions for the selection of the sample to use in the study help to generalize the research findings hence enhance the external validity. For internal validity, it is necessary to ascertain that the results are accurate (Ihantola & Kihn, 2011). It is needful to have the best quality and most accurate findings when applying research to practice. The factors that affect internal validity include the relationship between the independent and dependent variables, mode of recording of the findings, the selection bias, and the state of the demographic characteristics of the research participants.